A letter of support from Senator Mark Warner

Reprinted below is a letter to Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield from Senator Mark Warner sharing his support of battlefield preservation and heritage tourism.

Thank you for contacting me regarding battlefield preservation. I appreciate hearing from you on this important issue. From the beginning of the American Revolution at Lexington and Concord to the final engagement in Appomattox, the Commonwealth of Virginia occupies a unique place in our nation’s history. As your Senator, I remain an advocate on behalf of our shared historic sites.

Virginia is home to more Civil War sites than any other state and that is why I have prioritized their preservation throughout my time in the Senate. In March of 2011, I joined Senator Webb in re-introducing the Petersburg National Boundary Modification Act (S. 713) to protect an additional 7,200 acres of historic battlefields surrounding Petersburg National Battlefield. This legislation passed on December 8, 2016 making Petersburg National Battlefield the largest military park in the United States.

Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia is another historic site that has a rich history stretching back to 1609, from the colonists’ first constructed fortifications at the site, to the Civil War when escaped slaves were granted safety and sanctuary at the Union’s “Freedom Fort,” and to the present day. On June 29, 2011, I introduced legislation to designate Fort Monroe as a unit of the National Park Service. On November 1, 2011, President Obama used his authority under the Antiquities Act to preserve the Fort by designating it a part of the Park Service, and it is now open to visitors as Fort Monroe National Monument.

Our battlefields offer so much history, education, and recreation that I believe we must take steps to protect these sites for future generations. That’s why I am a proud cosponsor of the Preserving America’s Battlefields Act (S.3505). This legislation reauthorizes the National Park Service’s Battlefield Land Acquisition Grant Program through 2028 at $20 million a year – a $10 million increase over the current authorized amount. This matching grants program fosters partnerships between state and local governments with regional entities to encourage public and private investment. Funded through the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), it has preserved more than 30,000 acres of Civil War, Revolutionary War, and War of 1812 sites, including hundreds of acres in the Commonwealth. In total, the program has issued over $100 million to preserve more than 100 battlefields from three American wars.

Heritage tourism is an important component of Virginia’s economy. I believe that the preservation of our battlefields will create living memorials which will produce new tourism and jobs in the region. As the 115th Congress moves forward, I will continue to look for ways to ensure preservation of our heritage.

Again, thank you for contacting me. For further information or to sign up for my newsletter please visit my website at http://www.warner.senate.gov.

United States Senator

With large solar projects on horizon, what is the value of historic views?

Published August 21, 2018 by the Culpeper Star Exponent. Read article on starexponent.com or below.

Written by Allison Brophy Champion

A recent study by the Washington, D.C.-based American Battlefield Trust provided its analysis of the impact large solar farms would have on some of this area’s most hallowed ground.

The 14-page document answered some key questions: How far could Confederate and Union troops see from the half-dozen signal stations around Culpeper County during the Civil War, what did the views look like and what is the modern-day value of preserving such elevated vistas near the same areas proposed for two large solar farm projects?

American Battlefield Trust – an umbrella organization for the Civil War Trust – recently-commissioned, “A War-Time Viewshed Study of Culpeper County,” written by Glenn Stach, a preservation landscape architect and planner based in North Carolina.

A “viewshed” denotes the geographical area visible from a particular location, in this case, what was in view from six Civil War era observation points, or signal stations. The study used 3D technology to show on maps the detectable lands looking five or 20 miles out from signal stations including at Mount Pony, Fleetwood Hill and Hansbrough’s Ridge.

The Trust owns land at the latter two sites as part of the Brandy Station Battlefield, site of the massive 1863 cavalry clash. Both places would be included in a Trust-led proposal for a Battlefield State Park currently under consideration at the state level. If the proposed Culpeper County solar projects are constructed, its panels would be viewable from all three Civil War era signal stations, according to Stach.

“View sheds continually rank within the state as very significant to visitors,” he said. “Battlefield preservation and the experience of a battlefield today are best protected by the protection of agricultural lands.”

He continued, “Helping farmers continue to farm helps battlefield preservation and the experience of heritage tourism.”

During the War Between the States, Culpeper County experienced eight military campaigns, six battles and many hundreds of acres of military encampments, posts and pickets.

Lesser known are the observation points providing war-time communication and intelligence, located atop some of Culpeper’s most visible and “iconic” hills and mountains, according to the Viewshed Study.

Today’s views from the six posts, stretching across most of Culpeper County, are “a contributing and character-defining feature of the historic landscape” worthy of continued stewardship and conservation, the study stated.

“This wide-ranging network served two important military purposes – communication and intelligence,” said Craig Swain, a historian cited in the study.

The importance of the observation points was because of how they were laid out. To the north was a string of stations co-located near headquarters, to the south were stations allowing observation of the Confederate lines across the Rapidan River, and a station on Pony Mountain operated as a central ‘hub’ to relay messages, according to Swain.

Stach admitted it’s impossible to protect 20 miles of view shed.

“A contemporary viewshed policy says five miles is what you should manage, the mitigation of resources within that viewshed is most important,” he said.

The two proposed solar projects both are within that five-mile area. The panels will stretch up to maximum 15-feet during peak times, according to the extensive application submitted earlier this year by Texas-based Greenwood Solar seeking to build a utility scale project on 1,000 acres south of Stevensburg.

A separate project by Virginia Solar seeks to build on 172 acres between Stevensburg and Brandy Station with both following the existing Dominion Power transmission line.

Attorney John Foote, representing Greenwood Solar, said the project is fully consistent with the county’s solar guidance, which emphasize historic resource protection.

“The project will be entirely out of view from the county’s several ‘core battlefields.’ The project is located south of Route 3 and is not visible from the most sensitive Civil War sites located north of the road,” Foote said.

He said the solar panels would “have a very low profile” of less than 12-feet and would follow existing land contours. Greenwood Solar did not respond to a question about how many total solar panels the project would comprise, but said its entire perimeter would have rows of planted trees and existing native timbers remaining in place.

“In fact, the solar panels will be far less visible than many others uses in the general area,” Foote said. “This proposed project is not asking for, nor does it need, any taxpayer-supported county services. In addition, it will generate emission-free energy and create additional tax revenue for the county.”

Half-dozen landowners of farmland near Stevensburg, including Culpeper County Board Chairman Bill Chase, have entered into contracts with Greenwood Solar to build the project. According to a lengthy application submitted by the company in March, the project will generate an estimated $1.2 million in annual lease payments to the landowners over the project’s anticipated 40-year life.

The Greenwood project will be located along a 2-mile corridor running parallel to the transmission line, overlapping “slightly” with the eastern edge of Blackjack Road, within the battlefield study area.

“The project will be consistent with and only modestly affect the scenic quality of the rural landscape in which it will be located,” the application stated.

A county ordinance states that a solar farms must be constructed no less than a 50-feet from adjacent property lines and 150-feet from neighboring homes.

While the American Battlefield Trust contends it is not directly opposed to any particular solar project, its recent study encourages local leaders to take “a second look” at potential impacts to “cultural landscapes observable from places with names like Mount Pony, Hansbrough’s Ridge, Stony Mountain and Fleetwood Hill.”

“The purpose of the Viewshed Study is to assist the county by providing valuable information which county officials can easily draw on to direct utility-scale development in a context-sensitive, preservation-friendly fashion that comports with the historic character of Culpeper County,” said American Battlefield Trust spokesman Mark Coombs.

He said Culpeper County’s recently-developed utility scale solar policy recommends no such development on core battlefield lands as identified by Virginia Department of Historic Resources.

The county’s policy also states that “Battlefield Study Areas” around core lands would be considered “sensitive,” further noting as desirable the screening of views from historically significant properties.

“Visual impact on property designated as historic by its inclusion in the Comprehensive Plan … shall be minimized to the greatest extent possible,” the county’s policy reads.

Meanwhile, the Culpeper County Comprehensive Plan recommends “mitigation measures” for all new development with “Areas of Historic Interest” identified in the plan, including at Hansbrough Ridge, Mount Pony and Fleetwood Hill.

For the Greenwood Solar project, the applicant has included perimeter landscaping as “a central feature” to include double rows of trees in areas adjacent to existing homes.

Culpeper County is at the vanguard of largescale solar in Virginia, Coombs said, adding that the Viewshed Study is intended to apply to all types of future development in the same areas.

“What is less understood is this concept of wartime viewsheds and their importance within a historic framework to the county,” he said. “If Culpeper is going to consider a given application for a utility scale solar project, we hope this could assist the county to consider that and the visitor experience.”

Coombs continued if multiple solar farmers were allowed in a particular area vista views would be obstructed.

The study is not an attempt by the Trust to thwart solar, Coombs stressed.

Recently, solar farm developments hit a snag when the Culpeper County planning commission recommended denial of the Virginia Solar application on Glen Ella Road sating the proposed solar farm was out of character with the area.

The Culpeper County Board of Supervisors will take up the issue at it Sept. 4 meeting, which will include a public hearing.

Historian Stach is slated to give a presentation on the study at the Sept. 12 Culpeper County Planning Commission meeting.

He called the value of a historic view intangible, priceless. “Battlefields, viewsheds all play into that American story, that cultural identity, that authentic experience,” he said.

Coombs called them “outdoor classrooms” one can read about in books or study in school.

“But until you’re standing on place like Hansbrough’s Ridge and you’re able to see the landscape for yourself and put yourself in the shoes of the soldiers who were there, that’s a kind of understanding you can only achieve on site looking at those viewsheds,” he said.

The American Battlefield Trust estimated Virginia earns $6.5 billion annually in heritage tourism.

Anniversary of Battle of Cedar Mountain to be commemorated

Article published August 2, 2018 in The Culpeper Times

Written by Ashleigh Christopher

The article may be read below or at insidenova.com

Aug. 9 marks the 156th anniversary of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, the bloodiest battle to date in Culpeper County. To commemorate it, the Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield is hosting the annual Living History Weekend event on August 11 and 12.

The Battle of Cedar Mountain had a very significant impact on Culpeper history, according to Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield president Diane Logan.

“The battle was one of the earlier battles during the war,” said Logan. “It was during this time that the civilians actually realized that war was on their doorsteps. There were a lot of civilian casualties here. Homes were destroyed in this area around the battlefield, and there are a lot of civilian stories related to this battle.”

This year is the sixth year the Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield will host the Living History event.

According to Logan, part of what makes the event so successful is the living historians that work the event.

“We make sure that we have the best quality living historians we could possibly find, and I’m very glad to say that we do,” said Logan. “These people are very much involved in not only knowing the proper equipment to bring and the uniforms that would have been worn, but they study the battle itself, and they know the events that happened on this field. They will be portraying units that were actually here.”

The Cedar Mountain Battlefield, along with the Brandy Station Battlefield, is being considered as an addition to the Virginia State Park system.

“We do hope that Cedar Mountain Battlefield and Brandy Station Battlefield will become part of the Virginia State Park system,” Logan said. “We continue working with our state legislature, and we have lots of support on the state level and certainly with the community around Culpeper. This will not only impact Culpeper but Madison and Orange. Civil War Trust continues to work with the state and we hope that it will come to fruition in the next year or two.”

The event will take place at the battlefield along long James Madison Highway/Route 15 south of Culpeper at 9465 General Winder Road. Festivities will begin at 11 a.m. on Saturday, and parking is available.

“[The battle] is part of Culpeper’s history, and Culpeper’s history is what makes it so unique,” Logan said. “This had a huge impact of the civilians of that day and knowing your history I think instills pride in the community whether you are born and raised in Culpeper or, like me, you’ve moved here from another state.”

Scout takes on rebuilding of Cedar Mountain Battlefield’s Crittenden Gate

Crittenden Gate Cedar Mountain Battlefield


BSA troop 225 recently completed a fifth Eagle Scout project on Cedar Mountain Battlefield.

Scout Zach Wright (center) coordinated the latest effort, alongside his father Dale (left) and fellow Cedar Mountain-supporting scout Travis Badger (right), in coordination with Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield board member and scout liaison Sam Pruitt.

Wright’s creation replaces the previous representation of the Crittenden Gate with a  more authentic interpretation of the split gate design. The project also included working with state forestry to remove non-native species flora and replace it with native species. The area near the monuments and the line directly behind the gate were cleared and 20 Eastern Redbuds were planted.

Crittenden Gate, which stood at the center of the Confederate battle line, was the site of heavy fighting August 9, 1862, and a principal landmark on the battlefield.

BSA Troop 225 is a valuable partner for the Cedar Mountain Battlefield Association’s ongoing restoration efforts. Past Eagle Scout projects have included building a bridge connecting an interpretive trail to the pond on site, building picnic tables and developing a picnic area, clearing and developing a trail to an early cemetery, and placing benches along the trails.

The Eagle Scout designation is the highest achievement in the scouting program of BSA (formerly Boy Scouts of America) and typically requires years to complete, including an extensive community service project, like the one undertaken by Wright.

Originally published in the Summer 2018 edition of Hallowed Ground, the publication of the American Battlefield Trust

Tracing an ancestor’s footsteps on Cedar Mountain Battlefield

Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield (FOCMB) welcomes requests for battlefield tours by individuals or groups seeking to learn more about the battle. FOCMB was delighted to respond to a request by Mr. Greg McQuillan, of Colvina, California and his two sons, Brannon and Brendan for a  private tour in April 2018.

Mr. McQuillan is a descendant of Private Henry Von Sende, a volunteer infantryman with the 46th Pennsylvania. Private Von Sende was killed in action during the Battle of Cedar Mountain on August 9, 1862.

FOCMB Vice President Michael Block met the McQuillans at the visitors center for a brief orientation and overview of the military situation before the battle and its principal players, before the tour took to the field.

Von Sende’s unit, the 46th Pennsylvania Infantry, was part of Brigadier General Samuel Crawford’s Brigade. In addition to the 46th Pennsylvania, Crawford’s troops included the 5th Connecticut Infantry, 28th New York Infantry, and 10th Maine Infantry. These troops advanced from Culpeper to the foot of Cedar Mountain, where they camped the night of August 8, supporting Union cavalry under Brigadier General George Bayard.


Exploring Cedar Mountain Battlefield 

Cedar Mountain battlefield tour

The McQuillen tour explored the battlefield by foot in order to better understand the experience of Private Von Sende at Cedar Mountain. From the visitors’ center, the group proceeded to the intersection of Old Orange Road and Mitchell’s Road. It was in the fields east of this crossroad where Henry Von Sende spent his last night among the living. The 46th Pennsylvania camped along the north branch of Cedar Run directly behind Captain Jacob Roemer’s 2nd New York Light Artillery. It was the Pennsylvanians’ responsibility to protect the battery from Confederate infantry attacks. After a brief stop to take in the geography to better understand how the battle unfolded, the tour group traveled to Whalen’s Mill Road where the 46th Pennsylvania formed their lines of battle and prepared to attack.


Today, Whalen’s Mill Road only remains in traces on private property. FOCMB has established good relations with property neighbors, and with proper notice can gain access for private tours to these significant but privately owned parts of the battle ground. Here the McQuillens stood in the roadbed and walked the ground where their ancestor’s assault began. They visualized the troops lining up and learned how the appearance of the area today is different from the time of the battle. They visited the 46th Pennsylvania monument, which stands as a silent sentinel in the woods. The monument, dedicated in August 1902, is one of five regimental monuments on the battlefield.  After visiting the ground where Henry’s advance began, the small group returned to the preserved portion of the battlefield to re-trace the final footsteps of Henry Von Sende.


On the battlefield near the cannon the family learned particular details of the fight from their guide. They heard about the disjointed attacks of Auger and Crawford, and how the latter had a glorious but brief success in overrunning the Confederates along a position known as The Point, driving them from their position. Crawford’s men advanced the furthest of any Union troops on the field that day. After turning the Confederate position, they forced back and routed portions of two other Rebel brigades. Their success was fleeting as small groups of  exhausted soldiers found themselves isolated without support and facing a counter-attack by Confederate reinforcements. With this knowledge of the action, the tour group proceeded to the fields where the 46th PA advanced.

Walking up a ravine to the top of the hill in the direct footsteps of their ancestors, the McQuillans were vividly impressed with the final moments of Henry’s life. Mike shared stories of individual soldiers during the battle to describe the brutality of the combat in the woods where the Pennsylvanians fought. Exactly when or where Henry Von Sende fell is not known.


Visiting National Cemetery in Culpeper

The last stop on the day’s itinerary was the National Cemetery in downtown Culpeper. 

The National Cemetery holds the remains of Federal soldiers who fell in this part of the state. In addition to Cedar Mountain’s fallen, soldiers who died at Brandy Station and Trevilian Station are buried here, along with those who died during the Winter Encampment of 1863 -1864. Soldiers who died in smaller engagements or from illness from the surrounding counties were also brought to Culpeper after the war. Two identified soldiers from the 46th Pennsylvania who died at Cedar Mountain rest here, and were duly pointed out to the guests. Henry Von Sende’s remains are probably mingled with hundreds of others in the vast section of the cemetery for unknown dead.

 Culpeper National Cemetery

The impressive monument pictured above is dedicated to the Pennsylvania regiments that fought in Culpeper and was a fitting place to end the tour. The McQuillens were notably moved by the experience.

46th PA monument Gettysburg


After their Culpeper tour the family continued their Civil War odyssey by visiting Appomattox and Gettysburg, where they placed a stone from the Cedar Mountain Battlefield atop the battlefield monument to the 46th Pennsylvania.


-Contributed by FOCMB volunteer Bradley Forbush


If you are interested in a guided tour of the battlefield or a customized tour similar this family’s experience, please contact the Friends of Cedar Mountain Battlefield at 540-727-8849 or info@friendsofcedarmountain.org